Public Lands Issues effect on wildlife and wild horses and burros

photo by Terry Fitch of Wild Horse Freedom Federation

by Bonnie Kohleriter

Our public lands are now under attack which has enormous consequences for our wild horses and burros and for our wildlife.  The attacks are coming from Trump’s cabinet members, particularly the Dept. of Agriculture and the Dept. of the Interior, and from Congressional Republicans.

First, Rep. Jason Chaffetz R UT, introduced a bill early in January, 2017, to sell off 3.3 M acres of Federal land to states.  With an outcry from conservatives and sports groups, he withdrew that bill.

Then Rep. Jason Chaffetz R UT, introduced a bill later in January, 2017, called the Local Lands Act, wherein Federal law enforcement on our Federal Forest Service (FS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land, will be supplanted with State law enforcement with the States being given block grants.  The bill is currently in the Natural Resources Committee: Subcommittee on Conservation and Forestry.

Then Rep. Don Young (R) AK, moved a bill, House Joint Resolution 69, through the Congress in February, 2017, wherein the Federal Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) on Federal Alaskan lands will no longer manage its Federal wildlife, and its Federal wildlife will be managed by the State of Alaska.  Resolution 69 went to the Senate, where Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R) AK and Sen. Dan Sullivan (R) AK, moved the resolution through the Senate in March, 2017.

It is concerning as attempts are in process to take away Federal land and give it to the States, to take away Federal law enforcement on Federal lands and give it to the States, and to take away Federal management of Federal wildlife on Federal land and give the management to the States.  What’s next?  In addition to give aways, the Senate voted 51-48 to kill the 2.0 plan which was developed by the Dept. of the Interior.  That plan authorized public lands stakeholders to give input into the use of the land.  The killing of the 2.0 plan is designed to give the local and state governments more control over the Federal public lands for development such as use for businesses.

Now Ken Ivory, a Rep. in the Utah State Legislature, under House Concurrent Resolution 22, is asking the President and Congress to repeal the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 and grant authority and resources to the States to manage feral horse and burro populations within their jurisdictions.  The Legislature and Governor maintain the horses and burros are damaging the rangelands for wildlife and livestock that share the same areas.  This bill would authorize the States to geld the stallions.  Some outspoken ranchers and hunters want our public land for their gains.  The ranchers in Utah have expressed they want to “harvest” (slaughter) the horses and burros like they harvest cattle.

What else is coming?  Environmental groups have identified “Public Lands Enemies.  Interestingly they are all Republicans. They are:

Sen. Mike Lee           Utah    Sen. Lisa Murkowski Al    Rep Mark Amodei        NV

Sen. Orin Hatch        Utah    Sen. Dan Sullivan      AL    Rep Dean Heller           NV

Rep. Rob Bishop       Utah    Rep. Don Young        AL    Rep Tom McClintock   CA

Rep. Jason Chaffetz Utah    Sen. Jeff Flake           AZ     Rep Doug La Malfa      CA

Rep. Chris Stewart    Utah   Rep. Paul Gosar        AZ     Rep Steve Pearce        NM

Rep. Mia Love            Utah   Sen. Barrasso            WY   Rep Raul Labrador       ID

In California, McClintock is from the Central Valley and La Malfa is from NE California.  La Malfa is a 4th generation rice farmer and has received $ 5M in federal commodity subsidies starting in 1995, or on average a quarter of a million dollars every year from the federal government.  Now that’s the real “welfare” food stamps subsidy.

While Republican Congressional Representatives primarily supported by ranchers and hunters in their respective states, wrangle in Congress to take from the Federal government and give to the States, the Wildlife Services within the U.S. Department of Agriculture yearly brutally kills millions of carnivores and omnivores on our public lands to appease the hunters and ranchers.  The hunters claim the carnivores and omnivores kill the herbivores they want to hunt and the ranchers on our public lands claim the carnivores and omnivores kill their livestock.  The killings are brutal: aerial gunning, cyanide poisoning, steel jaw and leg trapping… In 2016 the Ag Dept. Wildlife Services killed 2.7 M animals on our public lands.  415 gray wolves, 77,000 coyotes, 407 black bears, 334 mountain lions, 997 bobcats, 21,000 beavers, 4000 foxes, …

Our public lands are to have a multiple use mandate, but it seems the powerful, monied hunting and ranching lobbies, as well as now, the gas, oil and mining lobbies in Washington are dictating what will go on with our public lands through their elected congressional representatives.  Get involved.  Contact your elected congressional representatives, especially those on the natural resources, agricultural, and appropriations committees in the House and the agricultural, nutrition, forestry, and environmental and public works and appropriations committees in the Senate.  Tell your representatives what it is you want on our public lands.

 

Can Utah’s Mike Noel Run the BLM, an Agency He Despises?

By | The Salt Lake Tribune

“The BLM manages some of the America’s most spectacular and iconic landscapes, landscapes that are integral to outdoor recreation, sportsmen, biodiversity, and native Americans’ and America’s high quality of life,”

As Utah state Rep. Mike Noel actively courts support for his bid to become the next director of the Bureau of Land Management, conservation and outdoor business interests are questioning the Kanab lawmaker’s ability to effectively run an agency he has relentlessly condemned since quitting it 20 years ago.

“The BLM manages some of the America’s most spectacular and iconic landscapes, landscapes that are integral to outdoor recreation, sportsmen, biodiversity, and native Americans’ and America’s high quality of life,” said Black Diamond Equipment founder Peter Metcalf. “We need a BLM leader aligned with this mission, one who recognizes the role these well-stewarded landscapes play in the vibrancy of one of America’s most important and sustainable economic sector.”

“Mike Noel,” Metcalf said, “is the opposite.”

The retired CEO joined 15 other Utah business leaders and conservationists in penning a letter to the Trump administration opposing Noel’s possible selection as BLM director.

An influential Republican, Noel has staked his political career on challenging federal land management and sparring with environmentalists and Salt Lake Democrats over limiting resource extraction to protect Utah’s striking red rock landscapes, wildlife, rivers and archaeological resources. Noel believes such limits do more to harm the land than protect it and suck the life out of rural communities that traditionally rely on access to forage, timber and minerals.

Noel did not respond to a request for comment.

Several Utah agencies and political leaders. meanwhile, have eagerly lined up behind his BLM candidacy.

The Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration also sent a letter to the Trump transition team calling Noel an “excellent choice.” Most of SITLA’s 3.2 million acres are 640-acre islands scattered in a sea of federal lands. BLM policies complicate SITLA’s efforts to generate revenue off these isolated sections, according to the Nov. 18 letter signed by trust lands board Chairman James Lekas.

“We look forward to working with a Department of Interior led by people who can change the direction of public lands management back toward BLM’s traditional multiple use mandate,” Lekas wrote. “Rep. Noel would be a great addition to that team.”

If Noel has his druthers, the BLM would no longer exist as an agency, at least in Utah, where he is leading the state’s charge to seize title to 31 million acres of public land — most of it administered by BLM.

But worse from environmentalists’ perspective is Noel’s unwillingness to engage with stakeholders who disagree with his notion of “multiple use.”

In recent years, Noel has promoted the ideas that law enforcement on pubic lands should be overseen by county sheriffs; Utah should invest millions of dollars in a lawsuit to take title to the lands owned by all Americans; grazing and energy extraction are the best uses of places that others value for scenery and ancient American Indian artifacts; the state should cover legal costs of county commissioners who get in trouble standing up to federal authority on behalf of their constituents.

“Rep. Noel has also demonstrated his disregard for the thoughtfully and collaboratively crafted management plans of the Bureau he hopes to direct, instead throwing his support behind illegal protests on BLM land and the extraction companies that hope to expand their activities on public lands to the detriment of the protection and other uses of those lands,” states the conservationists’ letter, sent Wednesday by Alliance for a Better Utah to Vice President Mike Pence and Interior Secretary-designate Ryan Zinke. “His history strongly suggests that he will not be a good steward over these public lands that all Americans use and enjoy.”

Noel, who runs a ranch and the Kane County Water Conservancy District, worked as a realty specialist in BLM’s Kanab field office before leaving after the 1996 designation of the Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument. A former colleague in the Kanab office contends Noel is the wrong person to lead BLM because of “his disdain for federal government management and his personal and biased agenda.”

“The next BLM director will need to ensure the BLM mission to provide enduring values and uses of those lands is sustained. Noel does not have that vision and is not that leader,” wrote Verlin Smith, now retired and living in Murray, in a letter to the editor.

Noel has since become a leading extremist in the movement to blunt conservation prerogatives on public lands, according to Metcalf, and in the process has earned a reputation as a dogmatic bully.

“This intransigent nature would hamper Rep. Noel in performing the duties that come with being BLM director, which include balancing all of the competing needs and uses that arise in managing our vast public lands,” the letter states.

http://www.sltrib.com/home/4858088-155/can-utahs-mike-noel-run-the

Nick Jans, author of “A Wolf Called Romeo” on Wild Horse & Burro Radio (Wed., 12/7/16)

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Wild_Horse_Burro_Radio_LogoJoin us on Wild Horse Wednesdays®, Dec. 7, 2016

6:00 pm PST … 7:00 pm MST … 8:00 pm CST … 9:00 pm EST

Listen to the archived show (HERE!)

You can also listen to the show on your phone by calling (917) 388-4520.

You can call in with questions during the 2nd half hour, by dialing (917) 388-4520, then pressing 1.

This show will be archived so you can listen to it anytime.

nick                                                                                                                Nick Jans

Learn more about wolves on public lands tonight with our guest, best-selling author Nick Jans, one of Alaska’s most recognized and prolific writers.  Nick is a longtime contributing editor to Alaska Magazine and a member of USA Today’s board of editorial contributors.  He’s written twelve books, hundreds of magazine articles and columns, and has contributed to many anthologies and other books.  Nick is also a professional nature photographer, specializing in Alaska wildlife, landscapes, and Native cultures in remote locations.

Nick wrote “A Wolf Called Romeo” to “bear witness to the life of this one remarkable wolf.”

romeo-cover-198x300

Nick is chairman of the Black Wolf Committee, which implemented the Black Wolf Special Funding Project to further memorialize Romeo and bring a greater level of understanding about wolves.  The Black Wolf Funding Project wants to create an exhibit inside the Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center, featuring a mount of Romeo, recordings of his howls, footprint imprints and more.

This show will be hosted by Debbie Coffey, V.P. of Wild Horse Freedom Federation.

To contact us: ppj1@hush.com, or call 320-281-0585

Continue reading

The Most Shocking 1.5 Min Video the World Must See!

by COWSPIRACY: the sustainability secret

“Just imagine what this does, in the form of welfare ranching, to our public lands and it’s effect on wild horses, burros and all other wildlife, let alone ourselves!” ~ R.T.

Public Lands Livestock Grazing Got You Down? TAKE ACTION

Source: Wilderness Watch

Urge Congress to support the Rural Economic Vitalization Act!

Most Americans are shocked when they find out that ranchers are allowed to graze their private livestock on our public lands – including deep within protected Wilderness areas – for literally pennies on the dollar.

Welfare Ranching StatsSTOP WELFARE RANCHING!

In fact, the federal public lands grazing program is among the most wasteful, environmentally damaging and economically inefficient uses of our public lands, costing U.S. taxpayer a whopping $120 million annually! When you consider additional direct and indirect costs, it’s estimated that the federal public lands grazing program on just national forests and Bureau of Land Management (BLM)-administered lands may costs as much as $500 million to $1 billion annually – all to provide only 3% of all the beef in the country.

One potential solution to this problem a piece of legislation called the (Rural Economic Vitalization Act (H.R. 3410). This bill would allow federal grazing permit users to waive their grazing permit back to the U.S. Forest Service or Bureau of Land Management in exchange for compensation by a third party. The associated grazing allotments would then be permanently retired from livestock grazing use.

Retiring grazing permits on America’s public lands protects Wilderness, eliminates negative impacts to watersheds, native fish, wildlife (Wild Horses & Burros), plants, and saves tax dollars.

Stop Welfare Ranching!  Click (HERE) to Help

https://wildernesswatch.salsalabs.org/reva/index.html

(Disclaimer: SFTHH is not endorsing nor soliciting donations for Wilderness Watch.)

Laird Lucas (Exec. Dir.) and Talasi Brooks (Staff Attorney) of Advocates for the West, on Wild Horse & Burro Radio (Wed., 9/28/16)

painy

Wild_Horse_Burro_Radio_LogoJoin us on Wild Horse Wednesdays®, Sept. 28, 2016

6:00 pm PST … 7:00 pm MST … 8:00 pm CST … 9:00 pm EST

Listen to the archived show (HERE!)

You can also listen to the show on your phone by calling (917) 388-4520.

You can call in with questions during the 2nd half hour, by dialing (917) 388-4520, then pressing 1.

This show will be archived so you can listen to it anytime.

laird-lucas-headshot-180x180Laird Lucas, Exec. Dir., Advocates for the West

talasi-brooks-headshot-180x180

Talasi Brooks, Staff Attorney

Our guests tonight will be Laird Lucas (Executive Director) and Talasi Brooks (Staff Attorney) of Advocates for the West, a public interest, nonprofit environmental law firm with an 85% record of legal success protecting the wildlife and wild places of the American West.

Advocates for the West are fighting to protect wildlife, land, water and air. Their wildlife cases wield the Endangered Species Act and other environmental laws to stop and prevent habitat destruction, from unchecked grazing to motorized vehicles to industrial degradation. Advocates for the West are protecting sage grouse. They fight damage to our public lands from logging, mining, and countless other degradations. Their water-focused cases employ the Clean Water Act, the Wild & Scenic Rivers Act, other environmental laws, and basic common sense to stop pollution, protect streams and watersheds, and improve water quality. Advocates for the West utilize the Clean Air Act and other environmental statutes to stop toxins, waste and pollutants that go airborne, so we can all take a breath of fresh air.

Some of the recent cases of Advocates for the West involve Wildlife Services wolf-killing in Idaho, protecting wild and scenic rivers, Point Reyes National Seashore in California, CuMo Mining Exploration, a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit against the Dept. of Energy and more.

This show will be hosted by Debbie Coffey, V.P. & Dir. of Wild Horse Affairs for Wild Horse Freedom Federation.

To contact us: ppj1@hush.com, or call 320-281-0585 Continue reading

Ohio State veterinarian and engineer to research ‘improved’ contraception for wild horses

By Fran Jurga as published on The Equus
“The war against our native wild horses and burros takes on many faces as the BLM turns up the volume in it’s mission to mismanage our federally protected wild equines into extinction while catering to grazing, hunting, mining and other special interests.” ~ R.T.


On May 11, 2016, the BLM released new(?) statistics on the wild horse and burro population.

frankMarco Coutinho da Silva, DVM, MS, PhD, Diplomate ACT, associate professor-clinical of theriogenology and reproductive medicine in OSU’s Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, and Dr. John Lannutti, professor of Materials Science and Engineering in the College of Engineering, are collaborating in an effort to curb the overpopulation of wild horses  and burros in the United States, thanks to an $800,000 grant from the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Wild horses and burros (WH&B) can be found roaming free in many western states. The animals have been federally protected since 1971 as part of the Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act, which declares the animals “living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the west.”

On May 11, 2016, the BLM released new statistics on the wild horse and burro population. In 1971, there were 25,000 WH&B on U.S. lands. Over the past few decades, the WH&B population has surged to an unprecedented 67,000, which is 40,000 more than the BLM’s Acceptable Management Level of 27,000 at which wildlife and livestock can live in balance with the animals.

Currently, the animals are rounded up every three years and given various treatments, one being a contraceptive. The contraceptive is in the form of a vaccine that contains porcine zona pellucida (PZP), which inhibits pregnancy by stimulating the creation of antibodies that prevent sperm from attaching to eggs….the propaganda continues here: http://equusmagazine.com/blog/ohio-state-veterinarian-pzp-contraceptive-wild-horses-blm-53121#sthash.9tN9nbJ4.dpuf

More

BLM Agrees to Beef Up Livestock Range Condition Reports

WWP_Little_Lost_River_Valley_GRSG_habitat_ID-2

SOURCE:  PEER.org

Data Quantifying and Qualifying Grazing Effects on Land Health Belatedly Restored

Washington, DC — The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has agreed to restore key data to reports measuring how well vast federal rangelands are protected from damaging overgrazing in response to an administrative complaint filed by Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER). The restored data reflects whether overgrazing or other factors are degrading the condition of 150 million acres of federal rangelands across a 13-state area covering most of the West.

The PEER complaint was filed in December 2014 under the Data Quality Act, which requires federal reports – especially those that are statistical in nature – to be complete, unbiased and of the highest accuracy and utility. The complaint targeted BLM’s 2013 Rangeland Inventory, Monitoring, and Evaluation (RIME) report, released a month prior, which is supposed to detail which lands are failing to meet range health standards for water, vegetation, soils and the ability to support wildlife. That 2013 report, and subsequent reports, omitted key data displayed in previous reports which showed –

  • The number and land area of grazing allotments meeting and failing rangeland health standards;
  • The reasons for violations of land health standards, such as whether it was due to overgrazing or from other causes; and
  • Whether land conditions are improving or declining or whether BLM is taking any management steps to restore degraded rangeland.

“Without this data, it is difficult for Congress and the public to measure the success or failure of BLM’s rangeland management,” said PEER Advocacy Director Kirsten Stade, who had labelled the incomplete report as “RIME without reason.” “We found it hard to believe that something as slow-moving as grazing livestock could not be adequately monitored.”

BLM initially rejected the PEER complaint but granted its appeal in a letter dated February 12, 2016. In subsequent communications, BLM indicated that it will correct not only the 2013 RIME report but the 2014 and 2015 editions, as well. The BLM had blamed a failed computerized mapping system as the reason it had stopped displaying import landscape health data.

BLM claims that it will develop new data reporting and mapping standards later this year, but has rebuffed suggestions that the agency put these changes out for peer review. Moreover, the agency has yet to provide much insight into what format this reporting system will take. BLM did not respond to an offer for free use of the Grazing Data Interactive Map developed by PEER, which web-displays data from BLM’s Land Health Status record system overlaid with high-resolution satellite imagery, permitting users to actually eyeball the land health conditions.

“PEER is tracking the disturbing trend of worsening range conditions across the 20,000 BLM grazing allotments,” added Stade, noting that much of the missing data covers the period when drought conditions across much of the Sagebrush West worsened. “We are concerned that BLM is poised to repeat the same mistakes by developing a new monitoring system behind closed doors that obscures rather than reveals the real conditions on public rangelands. Why should data about public lands grazing be kept secret?”
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Read BLM letter granting PEER appeal

See the PEER Data Quality Act complaint

Visit the PEER Grazing & Mapping website

Look at PEER’s successful appeal

View BLM emails explaining further relief

Western Turf Wars: The Politics of Public Lands Ranching

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Be sure to read Mike Hudak’s book, Western Turf Wars

And listen to FREE podcasts that includes excerpts from the book:
1) Ranchers Mortgage Our Natural Capital
2) Politics Trumps Science in Range Management
3) Public Lands Ranchers Obtain Favorable Livestock Management
by Harassing Government Employees and Conservationists

4) Nature’s Aesthetics Fall to the Plague of Ranching
(also available as an essay in PDF format)

SOURCE:  westernturfwars.com

Praise for this book:

“If you care about our public lands, Western Turf Wars is a must read.”  —Howard Lyman, LLD, president and founder, Voice for a Viable Future; author Mad Cowboy: The Plain Truth from the Cattle Rancher Who Won’t Eat Meat and NO MORE BULL! The Mad Cowboy Targets America’s Worst Enemy: Our Diet

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“The horrendous damage done to millions of acres of fragile public lands in the arid West by overgrazing livestock has been documented in a number of books, media articles, and scientific journals in recent years. Less often told is the real story about the ultimate cause of this devastation of our public heritage: the blatant and unconscionable wielding of political influence on the part of too many agency officials, politicians, and stockmen (and women) to keep those numbers (and damage) at unsustainable levels. This captivating and absorbing book puts it all together—and in such a special, compelling manner, that it has become one of the best environmental books I have ever read. It is the tale of some of the brave men and women who worked, against great odds, to protect the vast publicly-owned rangelands of the West that they loved. And because it’s told in their own words, through a series of interviews, it adds a unique human immediacy, and dimension—and power, to an unhappily too-familiar scenario.
“It’s a real page-turner; I literally could not put it down once I started reading. I kept on going, page after page, because I had to find out what was going to happen next—both to those courageous ones who dared to speak up against the abuses, and to the beautiful lands and native wildlife they strove to defend. I recommend it to anyone who cares about our public lands and who wants to understand better the forces and interests struggling over their ultimate fate.” —Brock Evans, president, Endangered Species Coalition; 1981 recipient, Sierra Club’s John Muir Award; vice president for national issues, National Audubon Society (1981–96); director, Sierra Club’s Washington, DC, office (1973–81), Northwest representative, Sierra Club (1967–73)

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“The tales of terror that Hudak has assembled run through the mind like a wilderness snuff film. The story is a familiar one. Resource extractors bully the land managers and buddy up with the legislators to acquire privileged access to public lands. They keep below cost fees so low they are in effect welfare for ranchers, and they feign bogus compliance with paltry environmental regulations.” —Andy Caffrey, quoted from his review in Oregon Conifer (newsletter of the Oregon Chapter Sierra Club), spring 2008

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“Interviews with 27 experts—all with extensive experience with or knowledge of public lands ranching—provide us intimate, accurate perspectives on just what ranching does to our public lands as well as how it affects us economically, socially, and politically. Special attention is focused on the political forces that keep stockmen arguably the most influential special interest in the rural West. If the western wild means as much to you as the Wild West, if you’re concerned about environmental destruction, about waste and injustice, then read Mike Hudak’s Western Turf Wars.” —Lynn Jacobs, author Waste of the West

mike_hudak     Mike Hudak, PhD, founded the nonprofit project Vibrant Public Lands (originally “Public Lands Without Livestock”) to increase awareness of the environmental damage caused by livestock production in the American West. From 1998 until mid 2000 his presentations throughout twenty states brought the issue to the attention of the Sierra Club. Subsequently, Hudak participated in negotiations that resulted in significantly strengthening that organization’s livestock grazing policy. Since that time, he has continued speaking throughout the United States at a variety of organizations, universities, and national conferences. His website now brings his articles, photo essays, and videos about public lands ranching to an even broader audience. The videos, short excerpts of the interviews that went into the making of Western Turf Wars, provide a unique contribution to our understanding of public lands management from the 1950s through the early years of the twenty-first century.

Mike Hudak earned his BA in mathematics and PhD in advanced technology from Binghamton University, as well as an MS in computer science from Northwestern University. As a former computer-industry researcher his work focused on the design of adaptive intelligent software. He served as Chair of the Sierra Club’s National Grazing Committee from 2008 until 2013 in which capacity he worked with the Sierra Club and other organizations to enact legislation that would reduce livestock grazing on public lands.

 

BLM Extends Comment Period on Proposed Land-Use Planning Rule

This allows more time for the livestock industry and other special interests to get their way.

Sheep covering Adobe Town HMA ~ photo by Carol Walker

Sheep covering Adobe Town HMA ~ photo by Carol Walker

SOURCE:  BLM

WASHINGTON –In response to requests from the public, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will extend the comment period on a proposed land-use planning rule by 30 days. The proposed rule aims to improve the planning process by making it more collaborative, transparent, and effective.

The comment period will be extended by 30 days, from April 25, 2016, to May 25, 2016. The proposed rule was made available to the public two weeks prior to its publication in the Federal Register on February 25, 2016. With this extension, the BLM has effectively provided a public comment period of 104 days. A notice formalizing this extension will be published in the Federal Register.

Implementation of the proposed rule would enable the BLM to apply the best practices that it has identified over the past 30 years of land-use planning. Continuing the BLM’s longstanding tradition of working closely with communities and local partners, the proposed rule would create increased opportunities for public involvement and transparency in the management of the 245 million acres of public lands that the BLM administers.

The rule would also establish an upfront assessment of baseline conditions in the planning area using the best available science and other relevant information, like traditional ecological knowledge and public views.

The project website, www.blm.gov/plan2, contains the proposed rule, recordings of the past public webinar and meeting, and other resources.

Comments on the proposed rule can be submitted via the Federal eRulemaking Portal at http://www.regulations.gov, personal or messenger delivery, or mail. For more detailed information on how to submit comments, visit the project website, www.blm.gov/plan2.